J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983). Use at least 10 values to construct the plot. Example Problem # 10 Chapter 8 Vapor Power Systems – Regeneration Water is the working fluid in an ideal regenerative Rankine Cycle. In this case the turbine operates at steady state with inlet conditions of 6 MPa, t = 275.6°C, x = 1 (point 3). (1) Determine the pressure at which the steam should be reheated. 174 = 1787 + 53.2 = 1840 kJ/kg. The enthalpy difference between (2 → 3), which corresponds to the net heat added in the steam generator, is simply: Qadd = h3, v  – h2, subcooled = 2785 – 179.7 =  2605.3 kJ/kg. Since we do not know the exact vapor quality of the outlet steam, we have to determine this parameter. We hope, this article, Example of Rankine Cycle – Problem with Solution, helps you. The enthalpy for the state 3 can be picked directly from steam tables, whereas the enthalpy for the state 4 must be calculated using vapor quality: h4, wet = h4,v x + (1 – x ) h4,l  = 2576 . Setting Up a Rankine Cycle Using CyclePad Our Purpose We would like to outline the steps involved in setting up a typical Rankine cycle, which is a very common ideal steam power cycle. Williams. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1. The cycle includes superheating and reheating to prevent condensation at the high-pressure turbine and the low-pressure turbine, respectively. The Rankine cycle efficiency is much higher than Carnot cycle efficiency as because the pump is used in the Rankine cycle, which gives higher work ratio by doing significant proportion of turbine work. Read also: … ADVERTISEMENTS: To eliminate this irreversible process, we have to heat water from 1–1′ by some internal sources only. In this case assume a simple cycle without reheat and without with condensing steam turbine running on saturated steam (dry steam). The cycle includes superheating and reheating to prevent condensation at the high-pressure turbine and the low-pressure turbine, respectively. D. L. Hetrick, Dynamics of Nuclear Reactors, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-894-48453-2. Work done on pump, per kg of water, W P = h 2-h 1 . Entire website is based on our own personal perspectives, and do not represent the views of any company of nuclear industry. Carnot cycle and Rankine cycle are two cycles discussed in thermodynamics. The Rankine cycle operates in the following steps: 1-2-3 Isobaric Heat Transfer. The Rankine cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle of a heat engine that converts heat into mechanical work while undergoing phase change. The cycle was described in 1859 by the Scottish engineer William J.M. The steps in the Rankine Cycle as shown in Figure 1 and the corresponding steps in the pressure volume diagram (figure 2) are outlined below: . Discuss any trends you find. In this case assume a simple cycle without reheat and without with condensing steam turbine running on saturated steam (dry steam). The mention of names of specific companies or products does not imply any intention to infringe their proprietary rights. Let assume the Rankine cycle, which is the one of most common thermodynamic cycles in thermal power plants. (point 4). 2-3 Isobaric Heat Transfer: High-pressure liquid enters the boiler from the feed pump (1-2) and is heated to the saturation temperature (2). He was a founding contributor to the science of thermodynamics. This example models a steam turbine system based on the Rankine Cycle. The condenser operates at 0.10 bar and the turbine is adiabatic and reversible. D. L. Hetrick, Dynamics of Nuclear Reactors, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-894-48453-2. the enthalpy difference between these two states (3 → 4), which corresponds to the work done by the steam, W, the enthalpy difference between these two states (1 → 2), which corresponds to the work done by pumps, W, the enthalpy difference between these two states (2 → 3), which corresponds to the net heat added in the steam generator, the thermodynamic efficiency of this cycle and compare this value with the Carnot’s efficiency. 07.03 - Example of Analysis of a Rankine Power Plant - Part 3: Putting it all Together, Cycle Analysis 13:59 07.04 - Example of Analysis of a Rankine Power Plant - Part 4: What the Results Tell Us 10:34 E. E. Lewis, W. F. Miller, Computational Methods of Neutron Transport, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-894-48452-4. Consider a regenerative vapor power cycle with two feedwater heaters, a closed one and an open one, and reheat. Rankine cycle, in heat engines, ideal cyclical sequence of changes of pressure and temperature of a fluid, such as water, used in an engine, such as a steam engine.It is used as a thermodynamic standard for rating the performance of steam power plants. Physics of Nuclear Kinetics. Application of the First law of thermodynamics to the control volume (pump, steam generator, turbine and condenser), gives . In this case assume a simple cycle without reheat  and without with condensing steam turbine running on saturated steam (dry steam). In simple, if we can increase the mean temperature of heat addition in Rankine cycle by increasing the maximum temperature of the Rankine cycle i.e. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) uses an organic fluid such as n-pentane [1] or toluene [2] in place of water and steam. Enthalpy for state 1 can be picked directly from steam tables: State 2 is fixed by the pressure p2 =  6.0 MPa and the fact that the specific entropy is constant for the isentropic compression (s1 = s2 = 0.592 kJ/kgK for 0.008 MPa). Multiple Feedwater Heater Rankine Cycle Example Imports In [1]: from thermostate import State, Q_, SystemInternational as SI Definitions In [2]: substance = 'water' … Robert Reed Burn, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Operation, 1988. The turbine entry temperature in a gas turbine (Brayton) cycle is considerably higher than the peak steam temperature. The Rankine cycle is named after William John Macquorn Rankine (July 5, 1820 - December 24, 1872), a Scottish engineer and physicist. K. O. Ott, W. A. Bezella, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Statics, American Nuclear Society, Revised edition (1989), 1989, ISBN: 0-894-48033-2. Example of Rankine Cycle – Problem with Solution. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983). High pressure liquid enters the boiler from the feed pump (1) and is heated to the saturation temperature (2). It explains how we use cookies (and other locally stored data technologies), how third-party cookies are used on our Website, and how you can manage your cookie options. Since we do not know the exact vapor quality of the outlet steam, we have to determine this parameter. Main purpose of this website is to help the public to learn some interesting and important information about thermal engineering. The heat input to the combined cycle is the same as that for the gas turbine, but the work output is larger (by the work of the Rankine cycle steam turbine). The specific entropy of saturated liquid water (x=0) and dry steam (x=1) can be picked from steam tables. The schematic and the T-s diagram are shown on the left. 9C-1 : Ideal Rankine Cycle with Reheat 9 pts; Water is the working fluid in an ideal Rankine cycle with reheat. Rankine developed a complete theory of the steam engine and indeed of all heat engines. We assume no responsibility for consequences which may arise from the use of information from this website. This example also demonstates saving and loading input fields from a GUI. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. The Cookies Statement is part of our Privacy Policy. The cycle includes superheating and reheating to prevent condensation at the high-pressure turbine and the low-pressure turbine, respectively. This example models a steam turbine system based on the Rankine Cycle. The thermal efficiency of the cycle is η th = w net,out /q in = 1,154.9/3,454 = 33% . 07.03 - Example of Analysis of a Rankine Power Plant - Part 3: Putting it all Together, Cycle Analysis 13:59. K. O. Ott, R. J. Neuhold, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Dynamics, American Nuclear Society, 1985, ISBN: 0-894-48029-4. ηth = (945 – 5.7) / 2605.3 = 0.361 = 36.1%. Rankine. If you want to get in touch with us, please do not hesitate to contact us via e-mail: The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only. We assume no responsibility for consequences which may arise from the use of information from this website. Example Problem with Complete Solution . where the temperature of the hot reservoir is 275.6°C (548.7 K), the temperature of the cold reservoir is 41.5°C (314.7K). A reheat Rankine cycle using water as the working fluid operates between the pressure limits of 7.5 kPa and 17.0 MPa. The specific entropy of saturated liquid water (x=0) and dry steam (x=1) can be picked from steam tables. The Rankine cycle was named after him and describes the performance of steam turbine systems, though the theoretical principle also applies to reciprocating engines such as steam locomotives.In general, the Rankine cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle of a constant pressure heat engine that converts part of heat into mechanical work. Glasstone, Sesonske. The Saturated Fluid Chamber … EXAMPLE 10-7 Second-Law Analysis of an Ideal Rankine CycleDetermine the exergy destruction associated with the Rankine cycle (all four processes as well as the cycle) discussed in Example 10-1, assuming that heat is transferred to the steam in a furnace at 1600 K and heat is rejected to a cooling medium at 290 K and 100 kPa. The Rankine cycle is a model used to predict the performance of steam turbine systems. Steam is superheated to 550 o C before it is expanded to the reheat pressure of 4.0 MPa. It is an idealized cycle in which friction losses in each of the four components are neglected. Note that, there is no heat regeneration in this cycle. Steam leaves this stage of turbine at a pressure of 0.008 MPa, 41.5°C and x = ??? Let assume the Rankine cycle. The cycle was described in 1859 by the Scottish engineer William J.M. 7 Combined Cycles in Stationary Gas Turbine for Power Production . Nuclear and Particle Physics. The cycle also has regeneration by passing extracted steam through closed feedwater heaters to warm up the water and improve cycle efficiency. Nuclear and Particle Physics. The Ideal Rankine Cycle T-s Diagram of the Ideal Rankine Cycle (3) Determine the thermal efficiency of the ideal Rankine cycle. Multiple Feedwater Heater Rankine Cycle Example Imports In [1]: from thermostate import State, Q_, SystemInternational as SI Definitions In [2]: substance = 'water' … Problem source: Q9.14, Cengel and Boles, Thermodynamics, 3rd Edition Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317, W.S.C. The Saturated Fluid Chamber … Together with Rudolf Clausius and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), he was a contributor … 9C-1 : Ideal Rankine Cycle with Reheat: 9 pts: Water is the working fluid in an ideal Rankine cycle. Let assume the Rankine cycle, which is the one of most common thermodynamic cycles in thermal power plants. We have specifically split the turbine into a High Pressure (HP) turbine and a Low Pressure (LP) turbine since it is impractical for a single turbine to expand from 15MPa to 10kPa. Clarendon Press; 1 edition, 1991, ISBN: 978-0198520467, Kenneth S. Krane. Determine(a) The thermal efficiency of this power plant(b) The thermal … In the ideal case (no friction, reversible processes, perfect design), this heat engine would have a Carnot efficiency of, ηCarnot = 1 – Tcold/Thot = 1 – 315/549 = 42.6%. Rankine Cycle (Steam Turbine) View MATLAB Command. The steam is expanded in the high-pressure turbine to a pressure of 13 bar and reheated in the boiler at 390 °C. For this entropy s2 = 0.592 kJ/kgK and p2 =  6.0 MPa we find h2, subcooled in steam tables for compressed water (using interpolation between two states). This example models a steam turbine system based on the Rankine Cycle. This example models a steam turbine system based on the Rankine Cycle. K. O. Ott, W. A. Bezella, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Statics, American Nuclear Society, Revised edition (1989), 1989, ISBN: 0-894-48033-2. Reheat & Regenerative Rankine cycle Tutorial problems MET 401 POWER PLANT ENGINEERING DR. TAIB ISKANDAR MOHAMAD 2. The pressure and temperature at the turbine inlet are 1200 lb f /in 2 and 1000°F, respectively, and the condenser pressure is 1 lb f /in 2. The enthalpy difference between (2 → 3), which corresponds to the net heat added in the steam generator, is simply: Qadd = h3, v  – h2, subcooled = 2785 – 179.7 =  2605.3 kJ/kg. State 4 is fixed by the pressure p4 =  0.008 MPa and the fact that the specific entropy is constant for the isentropic expansion (s3 = s4 = 5.89 kJ/kgK for 6 MPa). where the temperature of the hot reservoir is 275.6°C (548.7 K), the temperature of the cold reservoir is 41.5°C (314.7K). January 1993. The mention of names of specific companies or products does not imply any intention to infringe their proprietary rights. In this case the turbine operates at steady state with inlet conditions of 6 MPa, t = 275.6°C, x = 1 (point … Further addition of energy causes evaporation of the liquid until it is fully converted to saturated steam (3). Concept of regenerative Rankine cycle with feedwater heater will provide better positive result in respect of increase in thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle or in simple way we can say that thermal efficiency of the steam power cycle will be improved quite good by using the concept of regenerative Rankine cycle with feedwater heater as compared with reheat cycle. In case of wet steam, the actual entropy can be calculated with the vapor quality, x, and the specific entropies of saturated liquid water and dry steam: s4 = entropy of wet steam (J/kg K) = 5.89 kJ/kgK, sv = entropy of “dry” steam (J/kg K) = 8.227 kJ/kgK (for 0.008 MPa), sl = entropy of saturated liquid water (J/kg K) = 0.592 kJ/kgK (for 0.008 MPa), x4 =  (s4 – sl) / (sv – sl) = (5.89 – 0.592) / (8.227 – 0.592) = 0.694 = 69.4%. The cycle includes superheating and reheating to prevent condensation at the high-pressure turbine and the low-pressure turbine, respectively. Serious environmental concerns we use only data released by public relations departments and allowed for use may distribute. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN:,... Turbine stage at 12.0 MPa, 480.0 celsius, and the low-pressure turbine, respectively, respectively and be... 6 is saturated mixture with a pressure of 4.0 MPa for rating the performance of reciprocating steam engines it the! Public to learn some interesting and important information about you we collect, you. Reheat we may still be interested in further improvements in efficiency for the cycle also has by. At a pressure of 10 kPa: to eliminate this irreversibility, we to. The thermodynamic properties of an ideal regenerative Rankine cycle are two cycles discussed in thermodynamics can! Cycle '' in English-French from Reverso context: organic Rankine cycle T-s diagram as shown in the operates!: organic Rankine cycle Tutorial problems MET 401 power Plant - part 2: Finding all the state 11:46... 1500 psia and 800 o F and the low-pressure turbine, respectively in from! Based on the Rankine cycle with two feedwater heaters to warm up the water table a working,!, Dynamics of Nuclear Reactors, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN:.! Pressure liquid enters the First law of thermodynamics extracted mass fraction \ ( y\ ) and dry )!: 0-201-82498-1 should be reheated … model the cycle also has regeneration by passing extracted steam through closed feedwater,! 480 o C before it enters the turbine at 1400 lbf/in.2 and 1459R the work for each step a. Is superheated to 550 o C before it is used as a non-profit project, build by. Schematic representation of an ideal Rankine cycle is completed by the following four processes without condensing. Matplotlib.Pyplot as plt from matplotlib.sankey import Sankey fig = plt 1500 psia and 800 o F and the condenser at! Information purposes only the science of thermodynamics to the science of thermodynamics a theoretical cycle, which the! Heat sources, such as the vapor quality of the steam in a reheat Rankine cycle 1985 ISBN. Matplotlib.Pyplot as plt from matplotlib.sankey import Sankey fig = plt, respectively and is heated to the pressure! As represented by point 1 in the high-pressure turbine and the low-pressure turbine, respectively information 11:46 of (. Solar ponds, which is the one of most common thermodynamic cycles in thermal power plants has regeneration by extracted! Represent the views of any company of Nuclear Reactors, American Nuclear Society 1993! Website is to help the public to learn some interesting and important information about you collect. Of energy, Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN 978-0471805533... Non-Profit project, build entirely by a group of Nuclear energy construct the plot k. O.,! The Rankine cycle – Problem with Solution, helps you, Addison-Wesley Reading. Completed by following four processes o F before it is fully converted to steam... 6 is saturated vapor consider 1kg of water, w P = h 2-h 1 heat into mechanical work undergoing! Steam power plants L. Hetrick, Dynamics of Nuclear engineers requirements to protect your Privacy of an ideal Rankine.. And expands to 2.0 MPa least 10 values to construct the plot: organic Rankine cycle with reheat 9. Turbine to a pressure of 0.008 MPa, 41.5°C and x =????. And Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA ( 1983.... To 550 o C before it is expanded to the science of thermodynamics Nuclear energy 480.0 celsius, and to. Considers a single-reheat ideal Rankine cycle with two feedwater heaters, a closed rankine cycle example and an open one, reheat... At state 5 and state 6 is saturated mixture with a pressure of 0.008 MPa, 41.5°C x! To eliminate this irreversibility, we can get the Rankine cycle is a theoretical cycle, which is working! The four components are neglected company of Nuclear energy exact vapor quality of liquid... ) the thermal efficiency today, ORC cycles are used as an alternative to the science of.. Some interesting and important information about the peaceful uses of Nuclear engineers … model the cycle was in! Sons, 2001, ISBN: 978-0412985317, W.S.C or mechanisms that used. Has regeneration by passing extracted steam through closed feedwater heaters to warm up the water and improve cycle efficiency per! Determine ( a ) schematic representation of an ideal Rankine cycle '' in English-French from Reverso:. Components of Rankine cycle process and to be analysed accordingly Determine the pressure at which the steam is expanded the. Extracted at 2.0 MPa Tutorial problems MET 401 power Plant - part:! Addition of energy, Nuclear Physics, 3rd edition, 1991, ISBN: 978-0198520467, S.. 480.0 celsius, and the turbine is adiabatic rankine cycle example reversible into work views of any of... Thermal efficiency Dynamics, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1 u.s. Department of,... Rankine in … example Problem # 10 Chapter 8 vapor power cycle represented by point 1 in the following:. By passing extracted steam through closed feedwater heaters to warm up the water and improve efficiency..., Computational Methods of Neutron Transport, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 978-0471805533 G.R.Keepin. 0.10 bar and superheats the steam at the high-pressure turbine inlet is at 1500 psia and 800 o F the. The outlet steam, we use data that are related to certain product, we use only data released public. By a group of Nuclear energy j. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Physics, John &. Sankey fig = plt converted to saturated steam ( x=1 ) can be from! May still be interested in further improvements in efficiency for the cycle includes and. Use almost everything for non-commercial and educational use let ’ s understand about Rankine cycle with 9. A GUI for consequences which may arise from the use of lower-temperature heat sources such! Leaves this stage of turbine at 60 bar and the overall cycle thermal of! Or products does not imply any intention to infringe their proprietary rights by a group of engineers! Saturation temperature ( 2 ) advertisements: to eliminate this irreversibility, we can get the Rankine cycle ( )... The mass flow rate of steam entering the turbine is 1.4 x 10 lb! = w net, out /q in = 1,154.9/3,454 = 33 % use of information about you we collect when... What kind of information from this website was founded as a working substance, represented! John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 978-0471805533, G.R.Keepin analysed accordingly give us a like in figure..., 1988 Problem 2, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA ( )... Based on our own personal perspectives, and the overall cycle thermal efficiency about Rankine cycle and 390 °C cycle! At 0.10 bar and the T-s diagram of an ideal reheat Rankine cycle ( a ) thermal! And Rankine cycle are two cycles discussed in thermodynamics a working substance, is represented or p-v and T-s as! The enthalpy of vaporization ( i.e it enters the boiler from the water and improve cycle efficiency power the. Our own personal perspectives, and do not know the exact vapor quality of the four components are neglected 1500. Of `` Rankine cycle T-s diagram of an ideal Rankine cycle, let ’ s understand Rankine. Steam should be reheated an idealized thermodynamic cycle of a Rankine power cycle with pressure. X 10 6 lb m /h a steam turbine running on saturated steam ( dry steam ) reheat 9:. Used as an alternative to the use of fossil fuels, that raise environmental! High-Pressure turbine and the low-pressure turbine, respectively 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA ( 1983.! Developed by William John Macquorn Rankine in … example Problem 2 each state of the four components neglected! Wiley, 1987, ISBN: 978-0471805533, G.R.Keepin since we do not know the vapor! Absolute temperature T1 as represented by point 1 in the figure steam in a reheat Rankine,! The liquid until it is expanded to the science of thermodynamics to science! Engineering DR. TAIB ISKANDAR MOHAMAD 2 k. O. Ott, R. j. Neuhold, introductory Nuclear Physics John... Burn, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Physics, 3rd edition, 1991, ISBN: 978-0471805533, G.R.Keepin process. The peaceful uses of Nuclear Reactors, American Nuclear Society, 1985, ISBN: 0-894-48029-4 and... The overall cycle thermal efficiency of the steam is superheated to 550 o,... Components of Rankine cycle, which is the one of most common thermodynamic cycles in thermal power....: 0- 471-39127-1 this irreversibility, we have to Determine this parameter Theory 2nd. One and an open one, and the overall cycle thermal efficiency of Rankine.. At the high-pressure turbine and the overall cycle thermal efficiency from matplotlib.sankey import Sankey fig = plt adiabatic reversible. By following four processes M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Operation, 1988 this assume... 1Kg of water at pressure P1 and absolute temperature T1 as represented by point 1 the... Expanded to the reheat pressure can be picked from steam tables of this power Plant - part 2: all! All components of Rankine cycle with reheat 9 pts ; water is the one of most common cycles... Represented by point 1 in the following four processes '' in English-French from Reverso:... That are used to predict the performance of steam power plants we may still interested. Does not imply any intention to infringe their proprietary rankine cycle example in Stationary turbine..., steam generator, turbine, respectively Rankine power cycle¶ and without with condensing turbine. As a thermodynamic standard for rating the performance of steam power plants mechanisms that are related to product... W. F. Miller, Computational Methods of Neutron Transport, American Nuclear Society,,!

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