So let me briefly talk about this, I want to try to talk for maybe 30 or 35 minutes right now, and then leave you time to ask some questions and for me to try to answer them. After the success of pushing for civil and political rights in the ’64 Civil Rights Act, the ’65 Voting Rights Act, the Urban League puts forth a martial plan for the Negro saying, “We have to be concerned about economics as well,” as Ella Baker said, “What’s the use of being able to sit at a lunch counter if you don’t have the money to buy a hamburger?” And so, the Urban League is saying, “We could at least do as much for African Americans as we did for those that were displaced by World War II. Sandra Bass: Right. Wells, were famous for saying that the United States has done less for its freed slaves than Russia did its serfs in the early 19th century. We’ll have time for Q&A at the end, I’ll be pulling those questions out and sharing them with Professor Henry. Consequently, Representative John Conyers of Detroit introduces H.R. So, that’s sort of the name of the game at the electoral level, although a question I got when we passed it in California was somebody said, “Well, isn’t it kind of superfluous to do this in California because we’re doing it on the national level?”. The basic point is that this shift in public opinion to the left then has prepared more favorable ground for reparations claims, and we see that reflected in some recent successes in reparations. So, let me move then to a comparison of Rosewood and Tulsa because what I find interesting, particularly from the political standpoint, is looking at movements that are successful versus those that are not successful and what are the factors that contribute to that the success or the failure. I want to give you an opportunity. In the most immediate post-Civil War period, it’s land. They found it more difficult to get these pensions, in part because they required a birth certificate and many Blacks didn’t have birth certificates in 1860 when they mustered in. But the North Carolina case highlights the fact that we’ve had apologies from six state governments for slavery, state legislatures apologizing, and we had the House and the Senate issue apologies, I think, in 2009. - 2021 Council Schedule, 380 West South Street The United States had provided pensions for Civil War veterans, actually on very generous terms. If you’re bringing the case, have you been harmed by this action?” If you can’t prove that you’ve been harmed, that your ancestors have been harmed as one thing, that people you know had been harmed, but if you haven’t been harmed it’s difficult for you to bring that case. They are dimly or vividly aware that the history they have fed themselves is mainly a lie, but they do not know how to release themselves from it and they suffer enormously from the resulting personal incoherence.”. And then are a number of groups of activists who have pushed reparations for years through the UN. So, she’s a kind of link between this generation of Callie House and Reverend Dickerson and the people that we’ll talk about in the 1960s, in the mid-20th century. One more word about the time because I won’t have time later to really get into it and that is, this is a time of particular violence in the United States in the post-World War I era, 1919 has been called the Red Summer. Prosecuting Attorney. And I’ve just pulled these out of newspapers over the last couple of years, including some just in the last month or two. There was no sophisticated lobby in the case of Tulsa, there was in the case of Rosewood, in that they were successful in getting a white lawyer who was a lobbyist, who agreed to take on the Rosewood case and was skillful in taking it through the state legislature, and there was a dispute mechanism to handle a claim like this in the case of the Florida legislature. 40 and most of the presidential candidates ��� Cory Booker, Kamala Harris, Bernie Sanders, Elizabeth Warren, those in the Senate ��� had signed on as co-sponsors of that legislation. So, that’s an obstacle that we see repeatedly, standing as an obstacle and what we mean by standing is the court will say, “Have you been harmed? Revenue collected from the additional 1% sales tax must be used for property tax relief. So, we find that the legislative route, in terms of both the local and state level, has been more favorable than the legal route in most cases. Well, that has helped create the wealth gap that gives whites more wealth than Blacks. 2120 Martin Luther King, Jr. Way This is in the early 1920s, so these are some of the first aerial bombs that people fly over and throw explosives out of. It obviously had been against the law for most of them to be taught to be read and write, so farming was the mode of making a living. I’m also thrilled to be here because Professor Henry has been a mentor of mine since I was a graduate student at Cal, and what I remembered in meeting him for the first time was his intellectual generosity, warmth and encouragement. As we know, the most famous one being in South Africa, but there’s been local ones here in the U.S. and others around the world. It didn’t include a positive vision of a multicultural, equal and just society of people living together. In 1994, President Clinton appointed him to the National Council on the Humanities for a six-year term. We got a couple of questions about the truth and reconciliation process. Charles Henry: Yeah, I think that’s the beginning point. West Virginia State Police John Lehman It is imperative that parents and older students return calls from the County health officials to ensure they can do adequate contact tracing and case investigation to stop the spread in our community. There are actions around universities so if you’re a college student, look at your university’s history, look how it’s benefited or not. If you could just very briefly speak to that? Blacks were largely excluded from that, I think 1.6 million whites benefit from this, 4,000 Blacks got land. The Homestead Acts give about, I think it’s 240-some million acres to whites to settle, free land if you settle on it and develop it, to white Americans. Berkeley Courthouse NOTICE: Effective April 10, 2017, the Probate Examiners' phone hours have been suspended until further notice. Related Links. Their families have homes they can put up for bail, whatever. I’ll tell you, as an African American woman in graduate school in the ’90s in a discipline that has struggled with diversity and inclusion, having such a thoughtful and supportive ally was the difference between finishing my program and choosing to walk away. I’m the Associate Dean of Students and Director of the Public Service Center at UC Berkeley, and welcome to the latest offering of the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute series on America’s Unfinished Work with Professor Emeritus Charles Henry. I believe of the $500 million, $5 million is actually paid to the churches, to various organizations, during that period. Berkeley Count Sheriff Department The similarities include, one: the time that they occurred. And even Lincoln, during the Civil War, was actively exploring the possibility of colonization for Black Americans at some place outside of the United States, whether it be the Caribbean or Africa or Latin America, and was actually at one point told it would be physically impossible to relocate 4 million slaves. The most famous of these pension associations, which was co-led by a Black woman, Callie House along with Reverend Isaiah Dickerson. So, one of the things you’ve noted is just how poorly the legal system is equipped to collective redress, and particularly we’re talking about historical harms. Colonization was still an option for some. Christopher T. Engle, of Bunker Hill, West Virginia, was sentenced today to 41 months of incarceration for wire fraud, U.S. Attorney Bill Powell announced. Government Web Site for I look at Rosewood and Tulsa in my work because there are so many similarities, then it becomes striking that the outcomes were different. Sandra Bass: Oh, I’m sorry, I just want to do a quick time check. When they had hearings on this, it kind of opened up this pent-up emotion and these feelings. I think this is, when we talk about the buildup of microaggressions and that kind of thing, it would be a cathartic thing for people to talk about their experiences in this country on both sides of the issue. Starting Monday, January 11, the Berkeley County Courthouse will operate on a modified schedule until further order from the Supreme Court. I’m going to have to start moving faster than usual. A very significant case, because it relates to the Black Lives Matter movement and others, is that the Chicago City Council agreed to pay reparations to victims of police torture in a particular precinct in Chicago. Dutch and French governments, after study commissions, have agreed to repatriate stolen art back to Africa. Case counts and … Page screamed, and as Rowland hurried away, a clothing store clerk spotted him. Many had been very silent about this, and their kids and grandkids knew very little about it. So, if you’re able to close that wealth gap, it gives you the resources to survive pandemics when you’re not employed or you’re not getting your paycheck, kids who can’t afford their apartments can come home and stay with parents who are in a house that has their mortgage paid, etc. It struck me that, in this vision of Utopia in the future, we get to solve the problem of seeing Blacks as an integrated and equal whole of the rest of society. Summer Nails, Felony Case Coordinator This is Rosewood: “The trouble started in Sumner, which is a city close to Rosewood, in the early morning of New Year’s Day 1922, when Fannie Taylor stumbled out of her house bleeding and battered. They were in the New York Times, the Black press wrote about them, as well as the white press. Professor Henry will be talking about the case for reparations, and the current movement for providing reparations to the descendants of former U.S. slaves. Clementine Hopkins Charles Henry: Yeah. By Public Affairs, UC Berkeley| February 12, 2021February 12, 2021. Back in the Jurassic period, which was the 1970s, at least at this reading, I co-authored an article called Imagining a Future in America, or the subtitle was No Black Utopias. COVID-19 datasets on the Alameda County Open Data Portal: Eight datasets available for direct download or API integration. Dominic S. Orsini, Martinsburg City Police Several universities have acknowledged how slavery was central to the development as institutions. You do not have to apply for this reduction. Other questions about social welfare programs, but I really like this question of, “What would it look like for, or what would enable Black Americans to feel acknowledged, redressed, and with closure?”. I want to mention her, I don’t have time to talk extensively about her, but I want to mention her and Queen Mother Moore as two Black women essential leaders in this reparation struggle from the turn of the century up through the ’60s. It is automatically shown on your tax bill. So when you say, “Well, if I give you a $5,000 check,” I think this was something on the Colbert Show once or something, “If I give you a $5,000 check…” Actually, it was, I think, Charles Krauthammer said at one point a few years ago, the late conservative columnist, “Let’s just write a check for $5,000 to give it to people and I don’t want to hear any more complaints from you.” That sort of doesn’t make up for intergenerational wealth. View UCBerkeleyOfficial’s profile on Instagram, View UCZAXKyvvIV4uU4YvP5dmrmA’s profile on YouTube, Dacher Keltner on the science of awe and psychedelics, Binary stars are all around us, new map of solar neighborhood shows, Experiment shows why ticket sellers hit you with last-second fees, Language is more than how we speak ��� it’s home, COVID Stories: Why it���s important to let the little things go, Shafi Goldwasser wins L’Or챕al-UNESCO For Women in Science Award, An update from Chancellor Christ on two UC Berkeley student housing projects, Translating research into action can create real social change, Chancellor Carol Christ: Standing with our Asian American community, After Thoughts: Dacher Keltner on the science of awe and psychedelics. Sandra Bass: Absolutely. Charles Henry: Yeah, I’m going to give you the triggering incident in both cases. It was assumed to be taken care of, or other things would solve that problem. Christopher Barnhart This was not the only time that people had complaints against the state, and the state had a mechanism with a kind of Ombudsperson. I saw a piece, a brief snippet, in the San Francisco Chronicle just yesterday on Tulsa, saying they had found 10 bodies in an unmarked grave in a cemetery in Tulsa that they think were people who had been killed during the Tulsa Massacre of 1921, and those bodies had not been counted in that. I think that’s a kind of necessary conversation to get to the point where you’re talking about any kind of redress, because as long as we’re arguing different histories and not coming together as a community and seeing this as part of our whole history, then we’re not going to reach a point where we can actually have any meaningful redress. Both sides have to be sort of a part of this, it can’t be forced on something. It was suggested that each of the 4 million slaves should be entitled to 10 acres of confiscated or abandoned confederate land and that the many mules that had been working in the Civil War be leased out or loaned to those to help to the new freed men to help them work this land. Joseph Kinser You can write to your congressperson or your state legislator, but look around in your community to see what are people studying in terms of public school books. The Black Panther party, which adopts a 10-point program also, in some ways mirroring what the Black Muslim said, but in a secular way in what they consider a more progressive way, in that it’s not calling for separate land from whites, but it’s calling for land, housing, jobs, food, but land is a part of the Panther demands. So, these can be seen as a type of economic reparations. If you read the Black version of these accounts, they’re totally different. 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