In addition, the role of equatorial Rossby and mixed Rossby gravity waves as precursor disturbances for tropical cyclogenesis has been confirmed using satellite observations. A. can be converted into mechanical energy. This error adds up in the course of a 24-hour or longer forecast. Carrier, G. F., A. L. Hammond, and O. D. George, 1971: A model of the mature hurricane. Gill, A. E., 1980: Some simple solutions for heat-induced tropical circulation. b Use the following conversions for units of wind speed: 1 m s-1 = 3.6 km h-1, 1.94 knots, and 2.237 mph. km, these numbers are consistent with Fig. Generally the -drift is towards the northwest at a few knots; the speed and actual direction is related to the vortex size and strength. This is consistent with the sloping nature of the eyewall evident in the photograph from Hurricane Ivan (2004) (Fig. has anyone sold more records than elvis; something so intense that its almost tangible codycross; infant baptism vs believers baptism; Hello world! Thus, a physically-based definition of the transition from a tropical disturbance to a tropical storm is that the system has become a tropical storm once it is self-sustaining. Tropical Storm Ingrid was a weak tropical storm that existed from September 12 - 17, . Nitta, T., 1989: Development of a twin cyclone and westerly bursts during the initial phase of the 1986-87 El Nio. This hot tip will help you lose 20 pounds in 4 days! 8.2). 107. 8.56). Thus, a storm that stays in the same location will cool the waters below it and thus limit its own peak intensity.95 The shear inherent in the advection of the storm may delay intensification, but if all other factors are favorable it is possible for the storm to ultimately reach its PI.81. Because reality is not the ideal! Between 11 and 12 March, no eye is observed in the IR but the CDO expands and the bands become more curved. The swirling cloud pattern at 1200 UTC 8 September and 1800 UTC 10 September (Fig. 8.49. A seasonal forecast model must demonstrate skill against a "no skill" baseline prediction to be useful.200 The most common no skill forecast used for operational weather forecast models is a combination of climatology and persistence (known as CLIPER). Regional differences also may provide the source of the forcing leading to this further intensification. The concept of inertial stability can be illustrated by a thought experiment in a swimming pool. A variety of statistical models to predict basinscale tropical cyclone activity around the globe are now available (Table 8.3). Guishard, M. P., J. L. Evans, and R. E. Hart, 2009: Atlantic subtropical storms. Until Catarina, the cooler SST of the tropical South Atlantic and the strong vertical wind shear were thought to preclude tropical cyclone formation. For example, the loss of surface energy source and the increased friction will have less impact for a tropical cyclone moving over an island than if it moved completely over land. How about the deserts of the Middle East? Nicholls, N., 1992: Recent performance of a method for forecasting Australian seasonal tropical cyclone activity. american sniper longest shot; how to adjust sunsetter awning arms; pastor jeremy roberts texas. 2.41). 8:36, Cyclone Ingrid maintains intensity (from ABC News Online - Wednesday, 9 March 2005. Addition of the flows associated with the mesovortices to the flow in the eye results in the polygonal shape observed in the cloud pattern. Extratropically transitioning tropical cyclones evolve from this structure to become fast moving (>10 m s-1) systems, often resulting in a greatly expanded area of gale force winds. B. Halverson, B. S. Ferrier, W. A. Petersen, R. H. Simpson, R. Blakeslee, and S. L. Durden, 1998: On the role of hot towers in tropical cyclone formation. When novavax vaccine omicron efficacy. A symmetric tropical cyclone is in approximate thermal wind balance. Discuss the stage of development of the tropical cyclone ingrid. The anticyclonic outflow aloft has very weak absolute vorticity ( has the opposite sign to f and the rotational winds are weak; the signs of both and v act to reduce the effect of the Coriolis parameter on I). A few of these systems evolve into tropical cyclones close to the African coast, e.g., Cindy (1999) and Helene (2006); (see Fig. Fig. 8.8. Tropical cyclones have also been proposed as a mechanism for the formation of TUTT cells and that this formation is preconditioned by the large-scale environmental shear. At its most intense, the minimum sea level pressure of Tip was measured at 870 hPa at 0353 UTC on 12 October 1979.27 The estimated maximum sustained (1-minute) surface wind was 85 m s-1 (305 km h-1). 8.35, so we should interpret these results in terms of the storm lifecycle. Chan, J. C. L., J. Shi, and C. Lam, 1998: Seasonal forecasting of tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea. Research in the IDM is led by over 34 independent principal investigators in the basic, clinical and public health sciences, and has a strong translational focus. Bill Gray's achievements have been widely recognized, including the Jule L. Charney and Banner I. Miller Awards of the American Meteorological Society. [10], Rough seas produced by Cyclone Ingrid capsized a boat off the coast of Papua New Guinea, killing five of the 13 occupants. 8.45. Hart, R. E., 2003: A cyclone phase space derived from thermal wind and thermal asymmetry. Thus, proxy records are the mechanism that provide a window on tropical cyclone activity in the distant past. Together, these centers cover all regions of the global tropics affected by tropical cyclones. Observational studies40,214 of the western North Pacific and North Atlantic document binary storm interactions on average 1.5 times per year for the western North Pacific and once every three years214 in the North Atlantic (for the period 1945-1981). 2. Thirty tropical cyclones (including 16 typhoons and five supertyphoons) in the western North Pacific in 2004 ranked this as an active season, even for this very active region of the tropics. We can deduce the change of the winds with height using the thermal wind. Carlson, T. N., 1969: Some remarks on African disturbances and their progress over the tropical Atlantic. 8.58. 8.5. They appear to be similar to structures predicted in theoretical studies and numerical models.113,114,118,119. Bowyer, P. J., A. W. MacAfee, 2005: The theory of trapped-fetch waves in tropical cyclones An operational perspective. The formation of Tropical Storm Ana in April 2003 and the 2005 Atlantic storms, concluding with Tropical Storm Zetafor which warnings were issued until 6 January 2006, mean that tropical cyclones have been recorded in the North Atlantic in all months except February and March. 8.63. stage of development of tropical cyclone florencefrankie ryan city on a hill dead. The images have been rotated so that the area-averaged vertical wind shear vector points upwards. Limits on intensity are considered. Lander, M., G. J. Holland, 1993: On the interaction of tropical-cyclone-scale vortices. 8.44. Relative success in Bangladesh stands in contrast to tremendous loss of life in Burma (Myanmar) due to storm surge and flooding from Cyclone Nargis, May 2008. So we see that, storms forming under the right conditions farther from the equator can become tropical cyclones. 8B101.1. Identify and describe the six possible stages of a tropical cyclone lifecycle. In the western North Pacific, the strongest of these storms (peak wind speeds exceeding 33 m s-1) are called "typhoons. Adapted from Willoughby (1990). Snowy? Based on longterm statistics of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic; the "hurricane season" for that basin is defined from 1 June through 30 November. Article shared by : ADVERTISEMENTS: The development of cycle of tropical cyclones may be divided into three stages. William M. (Bill) Gray is an Emeritus Professor of Atmospheric Science at Colorado State University. 138. Forecast models ECMWF, GFS, NAM and NEMS Cerca nel pi grande indice di testi integrali mai esistito. Tropical Cyclone 02B at ~ 1900 UTC, 29 April 1991. To reduce damage from trees, workers cut numerous trees down ahead of the storm. 8.40. This section is highly theoretical; experience in dynamic meteorology is recommended. Numerous homes lost power and water supply, some sustained major roof damage and severe flooding isolated a few communities. Large areas of forested area were completely destroyed by Ingrid.[13]. 8.13). 8.33. 147. 195. Starting in Queensland, Ingrid crossed Cape York at a remote location, uprooting trees and stripping the foliage and bark from many more. 181. It has a fully developed eye in the centre and its structure is quite stable above an ocean. 8.69). The coastal region was devastated by peak 1minute averaged surface winds in excess of 72 m s-1 (260 km h-1), 898 hPa minimum pressure (SaffirSimpson Category 5), and a 6.1 meter storm surge. The environmental vorticity gradients will change the structure of the gyres and so will change the propagation of the tropical cyclone compared to the steering. 59. Madala, R. V., A. [1] Although land interaction prevented immediate development, conditions favored further development in the Bay of Campeche. 8.3) or the US Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) in Pearl Harbor. The VSCS with an intensity of 64 knots or more lasts for 2-3 days as against a global average of 6 days. For other uses, see, "Resorts evacuated as cyclone nears coast", "Qld: NT evacuations as Cyclone Ingrid nears", "Melville Island lashed by ferocious Ingrid", "WA: WA braces for Ingrid impact as Kimberley residents evacuate", "Five Papuan New Guineans die when boat capsizes during cyclone", "Interim report on severe tropical cyclone Ingrid", "Disaster Relief Activated for Cyclone Ingrid Damage", Australian Bureau of Meteorology: Tropical Cyclone Ingrid, Ingrid batters top end (from ABC News Online - Saturday, 12 March 2005. 95. The highest recorded death toll from a tropical cyclone occurred in November 1970; more than 300,000 persons were killed by coastal flooding when a cyclone made landfall in Bangladesh (Box 8-10). 98. Exercise: Given the drop in the central pressure under the eye (which is solved for in the Carnot cycle model) and assuming a distance to the undisturbed environment and an environmental pressure (model parameters that must be assigned), the gradient wind distribution for the three-dimensional wind field can be calculated.89,90 These calculations provide reasonable wind estimates for observed, very intense tropical cyclones. Kerry Emanuel's honors and awards include the American Meteorological Society's Meisinger Award and Carl Gustaf Rossby Medal. Why might a storm not intensify if it was in an environment with warm SST, no land or dry air, and no vertical shear? 8.4). Cyclone Ingrid was a tropical cyclone which struck northern Australia during the 200405 Australian region cyclone season. Response was most affected by physical cues (e.g., images of the size and intensity of the storm); proximity to the threat; experience with hazards,m and social cues (e.g., trusted neighbors evacuating). The CDO is the area covered by the cirrus clouds that extend from thunderstorms in the eyewall and rainbands of a TC. A storm that is commencing the process of ET becomes increasingly asymmetric, due to lowlevel frontogenesis typically resulting from interaction with a midlatitude trough. 8.37. This storm later made landfall in Texas as a Category 2 hurricane. The case of Hurricane Georges on 19 September 1998 illustrates the intensification phase of the eyewall replacement cycle. 8.31). Tropical cyclones can strike year round Understanding the Terminology A tropical cyclone is a rotating, organized system of clouds and thunderstorms that originates over tropical or subtropical waters and has a closed low-level circulation. Two outcomes can result from the barotropic mode of ITCZ instability and associated monsoon trough breakdown: formation of a group of several tropical cyclones, or re-symmetrization and development of one, larger, tropical cyclone19 (Fig. Adapted from Holland and Merrill (1984). Ingrid weakened rapidly after making landfall near Kalumburu in Western Australia, but continued to be an intense rain event (in Wyndham 272 mm of rainfall was recorded in 48 hours). Their motion is due in large part to the general circulation of Earth's atmosphere. Figure 8.44 illustrates how parallax errors differ at 85GHz, which is sensitive to ice scattering at high altitudes, and 37 GHz, which is sensitive to emissions from liquid drops at low altitudes. Air in the atmospheric boundary layer (bottom right to left) flows in isothermally, rises adiabatically in the eyewall convection, flows out to great distance isothermally near the tropopause, then sinks far from the storm. 8.6). By this theory, warm (cool) phases of the tropical Atlantic correspond to transport of waters through the global ocean currents that is faster (slower) than climatology. 169. Since the MJO is a strong modulator of tropical convection, it has been linked to modulation of the dynamical controls on tropical cyclone genesis too. All times for all storms in the dataset were included in the analyses depicted in Fig. So he decided to do something drastic. This is a great space to write long text about your company and your services. Mller, J. D., M. T. Montgomery, 2000: Tropical cyclone evolution via potential vorticity anomalies in a three-dimensional balance model. At this time, Wilma had a central pressure of 882 hPa and peak 1-minute surface wind speed of 80 m s. Fig. Propagation (motion that is not advection) of a tropical cyclone could not occur without the northsouth variation in the Coriolis parameter. Ooyama, K. V., 1963: Hurricane development. Can you think of some issues that need to be considered? What is the stage of development of the tropical cyclone under research? 64. Why can category 1 tropical cyclones be more destructive (damaging) than category tropical cyclones, differentiate between bronze and an alloy, (c) Study Figure 1a in the Resource Booklet. Atmosphere However, observations show that if advection of Earth vorticity, , is not considered, an error in the motion of a few meters per second with a direction offset from the steering will occur. Issues associated with evacuation include, but are not limited to the following: Main Menu. A small contribution to this surface ocean cooling may also come from the storm rainfall. Tropical Cyclone Ingrid. Allan, R., T. Ansell, 2006: A new globally complete monthly historical gridded mean sealevel pressure dataset (HadSLP2): 18502004. They occur as waves with maximum amplitude close to the level of the African Easterly Jet (AEJ) and low-level maximum amplitude north of the jet. Fig. tropical cyclone, also called typhoon or hurricane, an intense circular storm that originates over warm tropical oceans and is characterized by low atmospheric pressure, high winds, and heavy rain. animation of Catarinas Brazilian landfall, http://australiasevereweather.com/cyclones/2004/summ0403.htm, http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications_dir/south_atlantic_cyclone.html, http://tropic.ssec.wisc.edu/storm_archive/brazil/brazil.html, http://www.cpc.noaa.gov/products/precip/CWlink/daily_mjo_index/mjo_index.html, http://tropic.ssec.wisc.edu/misc/sal/info.sal.m8g10split.html, http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/project2007/sal.html, http://tropic.ssec.wisc.edu/real-time/salmain.php?&prod=splitEW&time=, http://www.usno.navy.mil/JTWC/annual-tropical-cyclone-reports, http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/tmrp/documents/iwtc_statement.pdf, http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/tmrp/documents/iwtc_summary.pdf, http://iri.columbia.edu/forecast/tc_fcst/, http://www.bom.gov.au/weather/qld/cyclone/tc_larry, Merger of two tropical cyclones, Zeb and Alex (1998), Animated damage due to storm surge and wind, http://www.meted.ucar.edu/marine/mod2_wlc_gen/dynamic_fetch.htm, http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/ONIN7GRR3J?OpenDocument&rc=3&cc=mmr, http://www.scidev.net/en/agriculture-and-environment/tropical-cyclones-1/, Animation of damage due to wind (Saffir-Simpson Scale), http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/dbc.nsf/doc108?OpenForm&rc=3&emid=TC-2007-000208-BGD, http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hurricanes/archives/2008/h2008_nargis.html, http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/ONIN-7GRR3J?OpenDocument&rc=3&cc=mmr, http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/National%20Warnings.html, Classification of Tropical Cyclone Intensity around the World, Animation of wind damage (Saffir-Simpson Scale), Monitoring of Tropical Cyclones, WMO Regional Centers, Necessary conditions for tropical cyclone formation, Genesis in the monsoon trough, schematic of TC formation region, TC formation and Tropical Upper Tropospheric Troughs (TUTT), Twin NH, SH formation Wave Stage. However, friction has two roles in CISK: (1) deceleration of surface winds (below gradient wind balance) is the cause of (2) frictional convergence that imports the moist, boundary layer air. Fig. 8.21. It identifies four basic TC pattern types, Holland, G. J., P. J. Webster, 2007: Heightened tropical cyclone activity in the North Atlantic: natural variability or climate trend? Wang, Y., C. C. Wu, 2004: Current understanding of tropical cyclone structure and intensity changesa review. A straightforward potential vorticity (PV) model for the Hadley cell provides ample evidence that the continuous PV source associated with convection in the ITCZ will act to destabilize and break down the ITCZ periodically18 through combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. The hurricane was also the last one to form in the Gulf of Mexico until Hurricane Hermine in 2016. How does evolution from a subtropical cyclone (tropical transition) differ from the answer just given? Note that as a mid-latitude cyclone moves from west to east, we experience the warm air mass in front of the cold front first, then the air behind the cold front. Wind shear slowed down development greatly. 190. According to National Weather Service records, Duckworth and O'Hair must have flown into the first recorded storm for 1943 (storms were not named until 1950). Increased understanding of interannual modulators of tropical cyclone activity has inspired seasonal forecasts of likely season severity.161,170,171,172,173 While these forecasts have skill they have largely failed to identify shifts in activity that may be associated with multidecadal variability or, possibly, with global climate change.160,174 To provide context for such shifts in tropical cyclone activity, longer term records of these storms175 and variations in environmental factors modulating genesis176 are necessary. 72. TCs remain a serious threat to society, especially as coastal population growth acceleratesa continuing trend in many locations around the world.137, The available documentation indicates that whenever there was a large loss of life from tropical cyclones, the predominant cause of death was drowning, not wind or windblown objects or structural failures. Rappaport and FernandezPartagas (1995). Relatively few tropical cyclones reach this status, characterized by peak sustained surface winds in excess of 50 m s-1 (Box 8-2, Fig. where V is the scale speed, L is the scale distance and f is the Coriolis parameter. lightning does occur in TCs, it most often happens in the convective outer It comes as the country deals with a second cyclone, called Kevin, bears down on the country. Eloise . Numerical modeling studies using barotropic models have examined the non-linear evolution of wave activity over the western North Pacific in association with the background confluent flow (recall confluent zone in Fig. Clearly, this will dry and stabilize the boundary layer locally,70 suppressing further convection (Fig. Whenever a tropical cyclone makes landfall, it comes with powerful storm surge, hurricane and tropical-storm force winds, isolated tornadoes and very heavy rainfall. stages of development of tropical cyclone ingrid. Satellite animation of easterly waves and tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic 2005, http://www.meted.ucar.edu/meteoforum/tropwaves/, http://www.meted.ucar.edu/nwp/pcu1/d_adjust/, http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/tropic/real-time/tpw/mainTPW.html, Animation of convective updrafts and downdrafts in an airmass thunderstorm, seasonal forecasts of tropical cyclone activity, operational forecasting of tropical cyclones in Chapter 9, Section 9.5, http://wind.mit.edu/~emanuel/pcmin/climo.html, http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications_dir/multi_resource_tropical.html, http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/tropic2/misc/adt/info.html, http://severe.worldweather.org/iwtc/pptFile/Topic1/Topic1a/IWTC6-rz.ppt, http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/ramsdis/online/tropical.asp, DMSP13/14 SSM/I (85 GHz channel), the TRMM TMI (89 GHz channel) and the Aqua AMSRE (85 GHz channel), http://www.meted.ucar.edu/npoess/tc_analysis/s8p3a.htm, http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/tropic/real-time/marti/marti.html, http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/sat_training/tropical_cyclones/ssmi/composite/index.html, http://www.ofcm.gov/ihc06/Presentations/02%20session2%20Observing%20the%20TC/s2-11kossin.pdf, http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/~kossin/articles/kossinetal2007WF.pdf, http://www.meted.ucar.edu/norlat/ett/index.htm, http://www.ecmwf.int/products/data/archive/descriptions/e4/, http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/jma-eng/jma-center/rsmc-hp-pub-eg/trackarchives.html, http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/expert_assessment/, http://www.met.psu.edu/research/research-videos, Satellite The key stages in the lifecycle of a typical tropical cyclone are incipient disturbance, tropical storm, tropical cyclone (hurricane, typhoon), and possibly severe tropical cyclone (major hurricane, supertyphoon). The surface winds of a tropical cyclone usually exceed 100 knots. ), which is related to storm intensity (Fig. Acquired March 19, 2010, this true-color image shows Ului hovering over the Coral Sea, just off the coast of Queensland, Australia. Cyclones are natural calamities that strike as violent storms and grievous weather conditions, caused by disturbances in the atmosphere. We recently discussed the importantance of omega-3 fatty acids for maintaining good health. The eye, with very destructive wind gusts up to 220km/h within a 20km radius, reached the far northern coast of the Australian state of Queensland between 6am and 9am on 10 March 2005 AEST, and hit the Cape York Peninsula. Weissman, D. E., M. A. Bourassa, and J. Tongue, 2002: Effects of rain rate and wind magnitude on SeaWinds scatterometer wind speed errors. However, the high vorticity in tropical cyclones reduces the Rossby radius and enables tropical cyclones to last for many days and even weeks. For example, if the storm comes ashore in the coastal plains and river deltas of the Gulf of Mexico, the frictional effects will be much less than if it makes landfall in a mountainous place like Taiwan or Central America. 184. parameter, f. Assuming a reasonable latitude of 15 gives f =410-5. 57. 8.1.2 Who is Responsible for Monitoring and Warning on Tropical Cyclones? 3.21a).187 The surface ocean currents are driven by formation of "deep water" which sinks deep into the ocean in the northern Atlantic and in the Southern Ocean (Fig. 8B9.5. The classification system became known as the "SaffirSimpson Scale" and has become shorthand for describing the destructive power expected from tropical cyclones around the world. Advection of the storm by its environment can be approximated by the average wind through a deep layer of the atmosphere (the deep-layer mean wind).204,205,206 When calculating this wind from standard pressure level data, it is necessary to weight each level by the mass of the layer it represents. His theory of tropical cyclone potential intensity has provided a framework for considering the impacts of climate change on tropical cyclones. Cyclone Sidr was a category4 cyclone, yet deaths numbered a few thousands232 instead of the hundreds of thousands during past cyclones of similar magnitude. Tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic (upper) and East Pacific (lower) the year before, during, and after El Nio. The growth of these waves have been explained in terms of "trapped fetch" in which the rapid forward motion means that the storm moves for a long time with the fastest growing waves123 (Fig. l These arguments are very similar to the conceptual model for the evolution of Rossby waves. Note the two concentric eyewalls that were likely the cause of short term weakening in Ivan. Topographic enhancement of the storm rainfall compounded the flooding in Muscat. Panels b, c, and d are from Montgomery et al.(2006). 232. Part I: El Nio and the 30mb Quasi-Biennial Oscillation influences. Why is it that every storm is not a Cat. For the 2007 storm, see, Ingrid shortly before being upgraded to a hurricane on September 14, Tropical Depression Ten Discussion Number 1, Tropical Storm Ingrid Discussion Number 4, Tropical Storm Ingrid Discussion Number 5, Tropical Storm Ingrid Discussion Number 9, Tropical Storm Ingrid Discussion Number 17, 2013: Mxico vive un ao histrico en desastres naturales, Tropical Depression Ingrid Discussion Number 18, Tropical Depression Ingrid Discussion Number 19, "Rare twin storms batter Mexico, 40 dead", Mxico Info Note: Remnants of "Ingrid" and "Manuel", Mxico - Nota Informativa: Remanentes de "Ingrid" y "Manuel", "Mexico hit by Hurricane Ingrid and Tropical Storm Manuel", "Tamaulipas floods Twitter with Ingrid alerts; video appears to show Gulf Cartel dabbling in disaster relief", El Coordinador Nacional de Proteccin Civil, Luis Felipe Puente Espinosa y el Subsecretario de Normatividad de Medios de la Secretara de Gobernacin y Vocero del Gabinete de Seguridad del Gobierno de la Repblica, Eduardo Snchez Hernndez, "Hurricane Ingrid, Tropical Storm Manuel hit Mexico, killing 15", Suman 46 mil afectados por "Ingrid" en Veracruz, "Hurricane Ingrid and Storm Manuel claim over 30 lives in Mexico", WSPA Disaster Assessment and Needs Analysis: Flooding in Mexico, "Tamaulipas y Veracruz se preparan para la llegada del huracn 'Ingrid', "Habilitan delegaciones de la Sedesol y sectorizadas como centros de acopio", "Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena with Late Reports and Corrections", "Contina Operativo Federal de Salud en los estados inundados", "Conferencia de prensa que ofreci el subsecretario de Normatividad de Medios y Vocero del Gabinete de Seguridad del Gobierno de la Repblica, Eduardo Snchez Hernndez", "Llevan Sedesol y Bancos de Alimentos productos a las zonas marginadas", "Entrega Cruz Roja Mexicana ayuda humanitaria a pobladores de seis comunidades en Pnuco, Veracruz", WMO retires Ingrid and Manuel for Atlantic and eastern North Pacific basins, National Hurricane Center's advisory archive on Ingrid, National Hurricane Center's graphical archive on Ingrid, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hurricane_Ingrid&oldid=1077128354, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, This page was last edited on 14 March 2022, at 17:23.

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stages of development of tropical cyclone ingrid