The now defunct Chess Tactics Server opened its site in 2006, followed by Chesstempo the next year, and Chess.com added its Tactics Trainer in 2008. New Scientist stated in 1982 that computers "play terrible chess ... clumsy, inefficient, diffuse, and just plain ugly", but humans lost to them by making "horrible blunders, astonishing lapses, incomprehensible oversights, gross miscalculations, and the like" much more often than they realized; "in short, computers win primarily through their ability to find and exploit miscalculations in human initiatives". Chessmaster had playthrough tutorials by IM Josh Waitzkin and GM Larry Christiansen. A naive implementation of this approach can only search to a small depth in a practical amount of time, so various methods have been devised to greatly speed the search for good moves. Hardware requirements for programs are minimal: the apps are no larger than a few megabytes on disk, use a few megabytes of memory (but can use much more, if it is available), and any processor 300Mhz or faster is sufficient. Shannon believed this would be impractical for two reasons. Extension and pruning triggers have to be used very carefully however.  In 1980 Belle began often defeating Masters. The Spracklens, creators of the successful microcomputer program Sargon, estimated that 90% of the improvement came from faster evaluation speed and only 10% from improved evaluations. In the first five games Kramnik steered the game into a typical "anti-computer" positional contest. In 1997 Deep Blue, a brute-force machine capable of examining 500 million nodes per second, defeated World Champion Garry Kasparov, marking the first time a computer has defeated a reigning world chess champion in standard time control. , The sudden improvement without a theoretical breakthrough surprised humans, who did not expect that Belle's ability to examine 100,000 positions a second—about eight plies—would be sufficient. In this approach, all alternative moves at a node are searched, and none are pruned away. Most GUIs also allow the player to set up and edit positions, take back moves, offer and accept draws (and resign), have a "coach" function to recommend a move when the player is in doubt, and show the engine's analysis as the game progresses. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chess software. 1975 – After nearly a decade of only marginal progress since the high-water mark of Greenblatt's MacHack VI in 1967, Northwestern University Chess 4.5 is introduced featuring full-width search, and innovations of bitboards and iterative deepening. (See Chess piece relative value.) In the early 2000s, commercially available programs such as Junior and Fritz were able to draw matches against former world champion Garry Kasparov and classical world champion Vladimir Kramnik. De eerste Version vun GNU Chess wööd vun Stuart Cracraft schreven. The problem with type B is that it relies on the program being able to decide which moves are good enough to be worthy of consideration ('plausible') in any given position and this proved to be a much harder problem to solve than speeding up type A searches with superior hardware and search extension techniques. A seven piece Queen and pawn endgame was reached with the World Team fighting to salvage a draw. Instead, they must look ahead a few plies and compare the possible positions, known as leaves. Several different schema were devised starting in the latter half of the 20th century to represent knowledge and thinking, as applied to playing the game of chess (and other games like checkers): Using "ends-and-means" heuristics a human chess player can intuitively determine optimal outcomes and how to achieve them regardless of the number of moves necessary, but a computer must be systematic in its analysis. John Stanback was still seventeen moves away from winning the rook within the next 25 dominated. After each multiple of this number of fundamental implementation issues Popeye is a shareware program written by Pascal Wassong DOS! Playing strength he lost one game ( overlooking a mate in one ), and that evaluation becomes valuation. 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